Manual Memnon

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Now such is the scene in Homer, but the events depicted by the painter are as follows: Memnon coming from Ethiopia slays Antilochus, who has thrown himself in front of this father, and he seems to strike terror among the Achaeans — for before Memnon's time black men were but a subject for story — and the Achaeans, gaining possession of the body, lament Antilochus, both the sons of Atreus and the Ithacan and the son of Tydeus and the two heroes of the same name.

According to ancient Greek poets, Memnon's father Tithonus was snatched away from Troy by the goddess of dawn Eos and was taken to the ends of the earth on the coast of Oceanus.

Colossi of Memnon are two massive stone statues of Pharaoh Amenhotep III

According to Quintus Smyrnaeus, Memnon said himself that he was raised by the Hesperides on the coast of Oceanus. According to Pliny the Elder and others, one statue made a sound at morning time. Near the earth's centre was made that goodliest of homes and haunts that ever have been, which is called Troy, even that which we call Turkland. This abode was much more gloriously made than others, and fashioned with more skill of craftsmanship in manifold wise, both in luxury and in the wealth which was there in abundance.

There were twelve kingdoms and one High King, and many sovereignties belonged to each kingdom; in the stronghold were twelve chieftains.


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These chieftains were in every manly part greatly above other men that have ever been in the world. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification.

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Retrieved 23 November In both places, the figure is over twenty feet high, with a spear in his right hand and a bow in his left, and the rest of his equipment proportional; for it is both Egyptian and Ethiopian; and right across the breast from one shoulder to the other a text is cut in the Egyptian sacred characters, saying: 'I myself won this land with the strength of my shoulders.

Some of those who have seen these figures guess they are Memnon, but they are far indeed from the truth. Description of Greece. Quickly, the site began to lure many visitors, including the great Roman Emperor.


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The Colossi of Memnon in Luxor, Egypt. Vintage halftone photo etching c. The mysterious sound also helped the name Memnon stick for the figures, a name adopted from ancient Greek mythology — according to which, Memnon was born to Eos, goddess of the Dawn, and he loses his life during the Trojan War. He was among those done away with by Achilles as revenge for his befallen dear friend Patroclus.

The strange sound from the cracks of the Colossus was said to be Memnon calling for his mother every morning. Beyond legends, the two figures of the pharaoh come with intriguing decor details. When the Romans attempted to repair the structure fissures during the 3rd century AD, the sound vanished. The refurbishment was under the orders of Emperor Septimius Severus, however, his initiative also distorted the original image of the monuments.

Previously the Northern and the Southern structures were identical depictions of the great pharaoh. Following the Roman retouch, the two figures differentiated. Without waiting to be summoned, Triarius hastened to join Cotta, and when Mithridates withdrew inside the city the Roman army prepared to besiege it from both sides. Therefore he?

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He lost some of his triremes in a violent storm, but he reached the river Hypius with most of his ships. Lamachus agreed to the request. He prepared a magnificent feast for the citizens outside of the city, and plied the people with drink, after instructing that the city gates should be left open during the feast. But he had arranged beforehand that Mithridates should come up secretly on the same day, and in this way Mithridates gained control of the city before the Heracleians even realised that he had arrived.

He advised them to maintain their goodwill towards him, and established a garrison of 4, men, with Connacorex as commander of the garrison, on the pretext that if the Romans decided to attack them, the garrison would defend the city and save the inhabitants.

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Then he distributed money to the residents, especially to those in positions of authority, and sailed off to Sinope. But when they heard about the capture of Heracleia - they did not know it had been betrayed, but thought that the whole city had changed allegiance - they decided that Lucullus should march with most of the army through the inland districts into Cappadocia , in order to attack Mithridates and his entire kingdom; that Cotta should attack Heracleia; and that Triarius should gather the naval forces around the Hellespont and Propontis , and lie in wait for the return of the ships which Mithridates had sent to Crete and Spain.

The others gave him no help, but Tigranes, after ignoring many entreaties from Mithridates' daughter, eventually agreed to an alliance with him. When they came to battle, they had varying success, but on most occasions the Romans had the upper hand. After they had joined up with the others, at first the two sides tested each other in skirmishes almost every day, and then there were two cavalry battles, in the first of which the Romans were victorious, and in the second the men of Pontus won.

But when the two forces clashed, the Romans had the upper hand, and after Lucullus sent reinforcements to his side, it turned into a complete rout of the barbarians. In their pursuit of the fleeing barbarians the Roman army reached the camp of Diophantus and Taxiles, and proceeded to mount a fierce assault on them.

The Pontic army withstood the attack for a while, but then they all gave way, with their generals being the first to turn to flight.

The generals went to Mithridates as the messengers of their own defeat; and a large number of the barbarians were killed. But he was pursued by some Gauls , who did not realise who he was, and he would have been captured, if they had not come across a mule which was carrying Mithridates' gold and silver, and they stopped to plunder this treasure. Mithridates himself reached Armenia, 2 though Lucullus sent Marcus Pompeius in pursuit of him. Then Lucullus advanced to Cabeira with his entire army, and surrounded the city; he gained control of the walls after the barbarians agreed to surrender under a truce.

There he pretended to conduct [the siege] negligently, in order that he might lull the enemy into the same attitude of negligence, and then achieve his object by mounting a sudden attack. The result was as he expected, and he captured the city by this stratagem. Lucullus suddenly ordered his soldiers to bring up ladders, when the defenders were paying little attention because they expected nothing of the sort, and he sent the soldiers up the ladders to the top of the walls. In this way Eupatoria was captured, and it was immediately destroyed.

Many of the citizens of Amisus were slaughtered immediately, but then Lucullus put an end to the killing. He restored the city and its territory to the remaining citizens, and treated them considerately. At this point, the 15th book of the history comes to an end. Cotta marched with the Roman army against Heracleia , but first he led it to Prusias. Prusias had previously been called Cierus , from the river which flows by it, but the king of Bithynia renamed it after himself when he took it away from the Heracleians.

From there he went down to the [Euxine] sea; he marched along the shore, and stationed his men by the highest point of the walls. A large number of the Roman soldiers were killed, though the Heracleians received many wounds from missiles. Therefore Cotta drew back his army from attacking the walls, and camped a short distance away. He turned his attention to preventing supplies from reaching the besieged inhabitants.

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When the citizens ran short of basic necessities, they sent envoys to their colonies, asking them to provide supplies in return for money, which the colonies readily agreed to. He learnt that they were withdrawing to Pontus, after losing many ships which had been sunk in storms and in various battles.

He intercepted the remaining ships and fought a battle against them near Tenedos , in which he had 70 triremes and the Pontic navy had just under And so the entire naval force, which had sailed out to Asia with Mithridates , was destroyed. But as many of his men were injured or killed, he constructed various siege engines, including the Tortoise, which rather alarmed the defenders of the city. He brought this forward in full force against a certain tower which seemed susceptible to damage; however after one or two blows, not only did the tower remain standing, but the head of the battering ram was broken off.

This restored the spirits of the Heracleians, but disheartened Cotta, who worried that the city would never be captured. Leaving a guard by the walls, he decamped with the rest of his army to the so-called plain of Lycaea, which gave him a plentiful supply of provisions. From there he laid waste the entire territory of Heracleia, causing great hardship to the citizens.

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Connacorex , the commander of the garrison, was even more brutal than his men; instead of restraining their violence, he encouraged it. But he saw that the soldiers were reluctant to press the siege, so he led them away again from the walls, and sent to Triarius, asking him to come quickly with his triremes and prevent food reaching the city by sea. He crossed into the [Euxine] sea and informed Cotta of the date when he would arrive. On the same day as Triarius' squadron of ships appeared, Cotta brought his army up to the walls.

They put 30 of their own ships out to sea, though even these were not fully manned, and the rest of the men turned to defending the city. The Heracleian ships sailed out to confront the approaching squadron of the enemy, and the Rhodians who were reputed to be braver and more experienced sailors than the others were the first to attack them.

Three Rhodian and five Heracleian ships were sunk immediately. Then the Romans joined in the fighting; both sides suffered heavy losses, but the Romans inflicted the most damage on their enemies. Eventually the ships from Heracleia were routed and they were forced to flee back to the city; 14 of their ships were lost, and the ones which escaped were placed in the great harbour. Triarius' ships took up station on each side of the harbour, so as to prevent supplies of food reaching those inside the city, and the city was gripped by such a severe famine, that a choinix of corn was sold for 80 Attic [ drachmas ].

Colossi of Memnon

The plague consumed its victims with many different kinds of suffering, including Lamachus , who endured a particularly slow and painful death. The garrison suffered most of all from the disease, which killed one thousand out of their three thousand men; and their affliction was obvious to the Romans. He was joined in this undertaking by a Heracleian called Damopheles, an adherent of Lamachus' party who had been chosen to be a leader of the city guards after the death of Lamachus. After agreeing terms which they hoped would assure their well-being, they prepared to betray the city.

Brithagoras , one of the leading citizens, went to see Connacorex. He described the situation in Heracleia, and implored him, if he wished, to negotiate with Triarius for the common safety of them all. After Brithagoras had delivered this request with much lamentation, Connacorex stood up and refused to arrange such a treaty, pretending that he was upholding their freedom and had great expectations. He said that he had learnt through letters that the king [Mithridates] had received a friendly reception from his son-in-law Tigranes , and he expected sufficient assistance to arrive from there before long.

Connacorex had invented all of this, but the Heracleians were deceived by his words, and believed his fabrications as if they were true; for men always choose to believe what they really wish for.