The bulk density BD of the defatted flours ranged from 0. The BD was however improved in the protein isolates with values of 0. These values are higher than 0. The BD is an indication of the porosity of a product that influences package design and could be used in determining the type of packaging material required for the product. Higher bulk densities are usually desirable in the food industries for the packaging advantages they offer Fagbemi, The isolates have good water and oil absorption, and foaming capacities that were higher than those of other oil seeds.
Boiling and toasting only improved the foam stability of the defatted flour but not the protein isolates.
The tyrosine and tryptophan contents of the protein isolates were increased as a result of heat processing. Protein isolates from raw, boiled and toasted conophor nut contain substantial amount of essential amino acids required in food for healthy nutrition. The isolates also exhibited higher level of biological value and protein efficiency ratios. Thus, the improved nutritional and functional properties of the conophor nut protein isolates by heat processing may enhance its suitability as novel functional ingredients for the food system at local level and for industrial applications.
Effects of thermal processing on the nutritional and functional properties of defatted conophor nut Tetracarpidium conophorum flour and protein isolates. Food Sci Nutr. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.
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Journal List Food Sci Nutr v. Published online Aug David O. Iyenagbe , 1 Sunday A. Malomo , 1 Atinuke O. Idowu , 2 Adebanjo A.
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Badejo , 1 , 3 and Tayo N. Fagbemi 1 , 2. Sunday A. Atinuke O. Adebanjo A. Tayo N. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Fagbemi, Email: gn. Corresponding author. Email: gn. Received Jun 9; Accepted Jul 6. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract Conophor nut Tetracarpidium conophorum was processed using different heat treatments to explore its full potential as food ingredients. Keywords: amino acid composition, conophor nut, functional properties, heat processing, protein isolates. Sample collection and preparation Matured, fresh conophor nuts were obtained from a market near the Federal University of Technology Akure, Nigeria. Determination of chemical and amino acid compositions of the conophor products Proximate composition of the defatted conophor nut flour and the protein isolate was determined according to the standard procedures of Association of Official Analytical Chemists AOAC, Statistical analysis All the analyses were replicated at least three times.
Proximate composition of defatted conophor nut flours and protein isolates The protein content of the defatted conophor nut flours ranged from Open in a separate window. Table 3 Effects of heat processing on the amino acid score, protein efficiency ratio, and biological values of conophor nut protein isolates. Table 4 Functional properties of processed defatted conophor nut and protein isolates. Emulsification properties The emulsion capacities of the raw, boiled, and toasted defatted nuts were 9. Functional properties of raw and heat processed cowpea flour. Journal of Food Science , 53 , — Protein isolates from bambara groundnut Voandzeia Subterranean L.
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